Ancient Egypt: c. 3000-1200 BC/BCE

 

Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Ancient Egypt.

 

 

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

REFLECTION

 

  • What is a social hierarchy?

  • What are the positions and roles in Egypt's society and how did the people in these positions live?

  • What were the elements of the culture which developed in ancient Egypt?

  • How did geography influence the development of ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures?

  • What role did the Nile River have in Ancient Egypt?

QUOTATIONs

 

Below are some of the powerful teachings or proverbs found in the temples of Luxor.

  • The best and shortest road towards knowledge of truth is Nature.

  • For every joy there is a price to be paid.

  • If his heart rules him, his conscience will soon take the place of the rod.

  • What you are doing does not matter so much as what you are learning from doing it?

  • If you search for the laws of harmony, you will find knowledge.

  • If you are searching for a Neter, observe Nature! Exuberance is a good stimulus towards action, but the inner light grows in silence and concentration.

  • Not the greatest Master can go even one step for his disciple; in himself he must experience each stage of developing consciousness. Therefore he will know nothing for which he is not ripe.

  • The body is the house of god. That is why it is said, "Man know yourself."

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND:

 

  • Prior civilizations have contributed the cultural elements of religion, art, music, architecture, science and mathematics, traditions, beliefs, and language to the modern world.  Why do we call Ancient Egypt a cultural heritage for all human beings?

  • A complex culture developed around the Nile River Valley in ancient Egypt.  What are the greatest achievements of the Ancient Egyptian civilization?

6.15 On a historical map locate the Mediterranean and Red Seas, the Nile River and Delta, and the areas of ancient Nubia and Egypt. Identify the locations of ancient Upper and Lower Egypt and explain what the terms mean. On a modern map, identify the modern countries of Egypt and the Sudan.

 

 

INTERACTIVE SITES

Ancient Egyptian Class Structure...

6.17 Develop a visual representation of the structure of Egyptian society including the role of the pharaoh as god/king, the concept of dynasties, the importance of at least one Egyptian ruler, the relationship of pharaohs to peasants, and the role of slaves in ancient Egypt.
 

 

 

Ancient Egyptian Religion & Myths

The beings in ancient Egyptian tradition who might be labeled as deities are difficult to count. Egyptian texts list the names of many deities whose nature is unknown and make vague, indirect references to other gods who are not even named. The Egyptologist James P. Allen estimates that more than 1,400 deities are named in Egyptian texts.

 

Forgotten gods of the ancient Egyptians, showing how the remains of the civilization were inspired by an obsession with death and reincarnation.The ancient Egyptians were obsessed with divinity, death and the afterlife, and reincarnation. In this opening episode, host Christy Kenneally visits Saqqara, south of Cairo, where the Egyptians learned the technique ofmummification and built the first pyramid - an early prototype for the grand monuments of the Giza pyramid complex. He journeys on to explore the ruins at Abydos, Karnak and Luxor, arriving finally at the island of Philae - the site of the last hieroglyphics and a little-known shrine to Egypt's lost gods.

Egyptian mummy CT scan video, Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History

This 53-second video consists of a series of images taken with a Siemens Somotom CT scanner of a mummy at the Department of Anthropology in the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. The individual shown here is a male who died at about 40 years of age; a relatively mature age by ancient Egyptian standards. He is believed to have lived in Lower Egypt sometime between the 25-26th Greco-Roman periods, which is between 600 B.C. and about 150 A.D., or roughly between 2,500 and 1,900 years ago.

 

When this mummy was transferred to the Smithsonian from the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia in the late 1950s, it was partially unwrapped, and very little was known about its history or the individual inside. Years later, using 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional CT scans, Natural History Museum anthropologists found that the brain and major organs were removed and rolls of linen filled out the abdominal cavity. This mummification method is evidence of superior embalming, indicating a person of higher status. The CT scanner uses x-rays to produce a series of 2-dimensional image slices which, for this video, were processed and converted into a 3D model. Two different CT filters were used to extract and digitize the physical properties of the mummy—a bone filter to extract images of the mummy's bones and a second filter that imaged the mummy's soft tissues, both inside and out.After the flesh and bone was digitally extracted, the data were imported into a computer program called 3D Studio Max, where virtual cameras were set up, an animation path was assigned and an animated clipping plane was set up to visually "grow" the mummy.

A HISTORICAL LOOK AT ANCIENT EGYPTIAN BURIAL PRACTICES

In ancient Egypt, a funeral was not just a funeral.

It was a big operation with many different parts: elaborate rituals, mummification, massive tombstones, and magic spells. The afterlife was a serious matter because everybody wanted to go to the Field of Reeds.  A funeral ceremony was thought of as a way to join the physical world to the eternal world and the afterlife....READ MORE

Mummies Secret's of the Pharoahs

6.18 Cite evidence from informational texts to explain the polytheistic religion of ancient Egypt with respect to beliefs about death, the afterlife, mummification, and the roles of different deities.
 
Focus Question: What were ancient Egypt's beliefs about death, the afterlife, mummification, and the roles of different deities?
 
Polytheism: the worship of more than one god. Egyptian gods include Amun Ra, Anubis, Seth, Osiris, Isis, and Horus.

 

 

Important Achievements of Ancient Egypt...

6.19 Summarize important achievements of Egyptian civilization, including:  · the agricultural and irrigation systems · the invention of a calendar · main features of the monumental architecture and art, such as the Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza · evolution of writing- hieroglyphics · the invention of papyrus

 

  • Agriculture and Horticulture in Ancient Egypt

  • Nile River - Satellite Picture

  • The Invention of Calendar  Floods started in June and ended in October.  Harvest time started in February and ended with a new flood in June. The shaduf, an irrigation device.  Sirius (a star) appeared within a few weeks of these occurrences - defined exact length of the earth’s trip around the sun.  After Sirius disappeared, the first new moon appeared after 70 days, marking the start of the new calendar year. One moon month was 29 ½ days.  The calendar was short by ¼ day every year, which added up, so Augustus introduced the “leap year” in 30 BC.  When Egypt was taken over by the Macedonians and, eventually, by the Romans, the Egyptian calendar months translated into the Macedonian and Roman calendars.

  • Architectural Elements in Ancient Egypt

  • Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Writing  Believed writing was created by the gods and called it the “the words of God” ("mdwt ntr"). The term hieroglyphic comes from the Greek word hieros (sacred) & glypho (inscriptions).  Dates back to 3400 BC.  Hieroglyphic script was used mostly on tombs and temple walls.  Hieratic script was used in everyday writing.

  • Champollion & Hieroglyphs

  • Invention of Papyrus  After developing a way to write, they needed something to write on.  Harvested a triangular reed found in lower Egypt that was light-weight, strong and durable that dates back to 4000 BC.  Papyrus plant was used for paper, food, medicine, perfume, making baskets, ropes, boats, sandals, utensils, tables and chairs.  Standard size was 47 cm long & 22 cm wide.  Listen and view the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the most famous math payyrus to have survived, from the BBC website, A History of the World.

 

  

How Papyrus is Made...

Queen Pharaoh - Hatshepsut...

The life and accomplishments of the first and most powerful female Pharaoh of Egypt.

6.20 Identify the Old, Middle, and New Kingdom time periods and evaluate the significance of the following: (C, H, P) · Menes · Khufu · Hyksos invasion · Ahmose · King Tut · Queen Hatshepsut · Ramses the Great
 

 

Kush Civilization in Sudan.

6.21 Identify the location of the Kush civilization and describe its political, commercial, and cultural relationship with Egypt.

 

Archaeologist have discovered evidence of mass burials in the ancient civilization of Nubia/Kush dating to 5000 years ago. This is to inform you that Sudan has the oldest civilization in the world which is Nubain civilization.

VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY:

Ancient Egypt

The following are a list of vocabulary words that you will be responsible for learning in order to better understand Ancient Egypt:  amulet, antiquity, Anubis, archaeologist, artifact, cartouche, colossus, deity, dynasty, embalm, excavator, hieroglyphics, immortality, mummification, obelisk, pharaoh, sarcophagus, shawabti, sphinx, talisman 

 

OVERVIEW OF HISTORY

Ancient Egypt Herodotus, the Greek historian called Egypt, “The gift of the Nile.”

 

  • The Nile River flooded every year, leaving silt on its banks. Since the Nile flows from the south to north, Northern Egypt is called Lower Egypt, while Upper Egypt is in the south. This is because the Nile River flows from higher elevations to sea level. 

  • Dynasty: a succession (one after another) of rulers from the same family

  • Pharaoh: means “great house” it is the name given to the king of Egypt Unification: the joining together of separate parts Kingdom: a time of unity under the pharaoh

 

Archaic Period (3100-2649 BC)

Very little history recorded during this time.

  • Menes becomes first pharaoh, rules from Memphis. Hieroglyphics develop.

 

The Old Kingdom (2649-2150 BC)

  • The time of pyramid building Pyramid building Pharaohs: Djoser 2630-2611 BC,

  • Dynasty III - his architect,

  • Imhotep builds the Step-Pyramid Snefru 2575-2551 BC,

  • Dynasty IV, builds the Bent and Red Pyramids Khufu (Cheops) 2551-2528 BC,

  • Dynasty IV, builds the Great Pyramid

 

The First Intermediate Period (2150-1975 BC)

A time of division and unrest; Egyptians write about “70 kings in 70 days.”

 

The Middle Kingdom (1975-1640 BC)

  • Mentuhotep II (Dynasty XI (11)) gains control of the entire country.

  • Pharaohs rule from Thebes.

  • Art flourishes

  • Famous stories are recorded and copied by scribes.

  • Irrigation projects are undertaken at the Faiyum.

 

Second Intermediate Period 1640-1550 BC

  • The Hyksos, a group from Western Asia, invade and take over Lower Egypt.

  • They Rule from their capital at Avaris. The Hyksos introduce new weapons (Chariots, composite bow) and musical instruments (Tambourine, oboe) to Egypt.

 

The New Kingdom 1550-1100 BC,

  • Dynasties XVIII-XX (18-20) Kamose, then Ahmose of Thebes, drive the Hyksos out of Egypt.

  • The capital is moved the Thebes.

  • Hatshepsut becomes the first female pharaoh (1503 BC-?)

  • Tuthmosis III wins the Battle of Megiddo,

  • 1479 BC Pharaoh Akhenaton practices monotheism (1352-1336 BC)

  • Pharaohs are buried in the Valley of the Kings, like Tutankhamun (King Tut) reign: 1336-1327 BC

  • Ramses II battles the Hittites at Kadesh 1279 BC).

  • Attack of the Sea Peoples (1185BC) during the reign of Ramses III

 

The Late Period 1100-30 BC

  • Egypt is conquered, ruled or attacked by a series of invaders including the Nubians, Assyrians, Persians, and Macedonian Greeks.

  • 30 BC – The Romans conquer Egypt, Cleopatra is the last ruler

 

ONLINE LESSONS

 

 

The Story of Nubia...

6.16 Investigate the kinds of evidence used by archaeologists and historians to draw conclusions about the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Nubia (the Kingdom of Kush) and their relationship to the social and economic characteristics of Ancient Egypt.

 

This short documentary tells the story of Nubia and the civilization that flourished in the Nile Valley for thousands of years and particularly between 800 BC and 400 AD. The Galleries of Africa: Nubia at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto allow visitors to explore an exxtraordiary ancient legacy that stretched from Aswan in Egypt to Khartoum in Sudan through the lens of both ancient artifacts and ongoing, current ROM archaeological research.

 

 

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: Digital collections of Egyptian Pyramids, including the Pyramids and Sphinx at Giza; digital collections of the Pyramid Texts on the wall of the burial chamber of the Pyramid of Teti, Saqqara; digital collections of documents written on papyri

 

 

 

 

THE PYRAMID OF SAQQARA

The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, the tomb of King Djoser.

THE PYRAMID OF TETI

The King's Pyramid. The pyramid of Teti measured 78.5 metres to a side. With its slope of 53°7'48" it rose to a height of 52.5 metres.  Read more of the text on the wall of the burial chamber.  Writings from the Ancient World

THEBAN MAPPING PROJECT

Join archaeologists in Egypt's Valley of the Kings as they post their discoveries on the web as soon as they are made. This find of the century is KV5, thought to be the mausoleum of as many as 50 sons of Ramses II, one of Egypt's most important pharaohs. Leader of the expedition, Kent Weeks of American University in Cairo, says that more than 110 rooms have already been found, and thousands of artifacts. The archaeologists are on leave through the summer.

READINGS

THE FINDING OF THE ROSETTA STONE

The Discovery and Decipherment of the Rosetta Stone at the British Museum by Adrienne Naquin.

THE SPHINX

 

  • The Sphinx at Giza is a half lion and half human statue built in 3rd millennium BC

  • It is among the largest single-stone statues on earth, carved from limestone bedrock

  • It faces due east

  • “Riddle of the Sphinx”: no one knows for sure who built it, when, or what it was really modeled after.

Click here for an interactive view of the Sphinx.

THE PYRAMIDS

 

  • Pyramids were built to house dead pharaohs and queens

  • 80 pyramids still stand today, while 3 of the largest and best preserved are found at Giza

  • The most well-known pyramid is the “Great Pyramid” was built for pharaoh Khufu

  • The second best-known is the pyramid built for Khufu’s son, pharaoh Khafra

  • The sphinx guards Khara’s pyramid

  • The final largest was built for pharaoh Menkaure

  • Pyramids were shaped the way they were so the dead could climb up to heaven and the sloping sides represented the rays of the sun

Click here for an interactive view of the Pyramids..

SPOTLIGHT INTERVIEW WITH DR. ZAHI HAWASS, EGYPTOLOGIST

 

An article attesting to man's violence against man, even in the earliest of times by Arther Ferrill

CONNECTIONS

LIVESCIENCE:  REPLICA KING TUT TOMB UNVEILED IN EGYPT

 

King Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt went undisturbed for 3,000 years. But in the 90 years since its discovery, the ancient burial chamber has been ravaged by tourism.To prevent further damage and deterioration, conservationists hope a newly unveiled, life-size replica of the tomb will ease the flow of traffic to the original.

ACTIVITIES

BUILD A SCALE MODEL OF A PYRAMID

 

Scale Model of the Great Pyramid.  You can build a model of the Great Pyramid, but first you need to scale it down. To do this, you will need to make the pyramid 3,000 times smaller than it really is!

 

Activity:  PBS Cracking the Hieroglyphic Code

Students are able to translate hieroglyphics. It includes a helpful explanation of the origin of hieroglyphs.

 

 

WRITE YOUR NAME IN HIEROGLYPHICS

Using the Hieroglyphic Name Translator you can see how your own name would be viewed in Ancient Egypt!

THE TOMB OF PERNEB

Explore the Egyptian tomb of Perneb presented by the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

 

THE JEWELLER OF MEMPHIS

You are an assistant working in a jewellery workshop in ancient Memphis. You are in charge of collecting materials for the head jeweller to make into rings, bracelets, and necklaces.

 

VIRTUAL FIELDTRIPS

BBC ANCIENT EGYPTIAN GODS GALLERY

 

The deities in the following gallery are just 12 out of a possible 2,000 gods and goddesses who were worshipped in ancient Egypt. Some of them were major deities wielding great religious, temporal and political power, others being not much more than demons and genies, or living creatures chosen by ordinary Egyptians to be their personal gods.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ANCIENT EGYPT

 

An exploration of the revolutionary period of prehistory that began when humans abandoned the nomadic hunting and gathering existence they had known for millennia to take up a completely new way of life the decisive move to farming and herding the ration of permanent settlements and the discovery of metals setting the stage for the arrival of the worlds first civilisation.

VIRTUAL TOURS OF THE RUINS OF ANCIENT EGYPT

 

Explore virtually these ancient historical sites.

HumorousMoment

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES ANCIENT EGYPTIANS' SCIENCE

Consider the amazing scientific accomplishments of this ancient society...

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES CLEOPATRA SONG

Horrible History interpretation of Cleopatra's life and attitude...

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES HIEROGLYPHICS SONG

Horrible History interpretation of classroom in Ancient Egypt...

READ MORE

DATABASES

TEL

 

Free Access to great resources for Tennesseans

 

DISCOVERY ATLAS INTERACTIVE MAP

Select a location and experience the culture, government, history and natural of countries around the world.   

 

A MOMENT IN TIME

 

Take a journey around the world today to see "a moment in time"...

 

HISTORY PRIMARY SOURCE READER

 

Excerpts from many of the primary sources highlighted in the Common Core Curriculum.

 

 

FOOD TIMELINE

Food history presents a fascinating buffet of popular lore and contradictory facts.

 

INTERNET ANCIENT HISTORY SOURCEBOOK

 

The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook has expanded greatly since its creation, and now contains hundred of local files as well as links to source texts throughout the net.  

 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

 

WORLD ATLAS

 

Comprehensive facts about regions around the world.

 

WORLDOLOGY

The changing face of Europe over the centuries...

 

BEST HISTORY SITES

 

Comprehensive resources and lesson plans for teaching history.

 

DIGITAL HISTORY

 

Using new technologies to enhance teaching and research.

 

LOC TEACHING WITH PRIMARY SOURCES

 

Use digital historical sources to explore different topics online with fun interactive teacher-created activities. Choose from various activities to get started.

 

SMITHSONIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Online Resources from A to Z

 

 

 

APPS
WHY LEARN HISTORY?

KIDS DISCOVER APPS

 

Print 28 pages of free lesson plans and activities based on the apps on the CMS LMC iPads.

WHY STUDY CLASSICS?

 

Why Study Classics?  Advantages of Classical Studies

EXPLORING ANCIENT WORLD CULTURES

 

Why Study Ancient World Cultures? An Essay by Bill Hemminger

CONTACTS

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Cleveland, TN  37312

Tel: 423-479-9641
Fax: 423-456-7890

 

Mail: gdyrek@clevelandschools.org

 

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THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES EXPERIENCE DIGITAL VAULTS

 

Use the assets in these collections to create your own poster or movie.

ONLINE TEXTBOOKS

 

Covering Ancient History

TODAY IN HISTORY

 

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

iCIVICS

 

Free lesson plans and games for learning Civics.

WHY DO CIVILIZATIONS FAIL?

Why do great civilizations fall? The history of humankind has been marked by patterns of growth and decline. Some declines have been gradual, occurring over centuries. Others have been rapid, occurring over the course of a few years. War, drought, natural disaster, disease, overpopulation, economic disruption: any of these or a combination of these events can bring about the collapse of a civilization.

 

COMMON CORE LITERACY IN SOCIAL STUDIES/HISTORY LESSONS

 

Achieve the CORE by using these lessons to incorporate literacy into your teaching.

PBS NEWS HOUR FOR STUDENTS

 

Current Events explored in-depth with lesson plans.

© 2014-2019 BY G.M. Dyrek CMS LMC

Arabia Egypt Petra

A beautiful chart of Egypt and Arabia petræa. It was made S.l., 18--. Egypt. Published in 1851 by J. & F. Tallis. Scale 1:3,250,000.