The Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution

 

Students analyze the historical developments of the Scientific Revolution and its lasting effect on religious, political, and cultural institutions. Students analyze political, social, and economic change as a result of the Age of Enlightenment in Europe.

 

 

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
VOCABULARY

REFLECTION

 

  • Why do people resist new ideas or major changes?

  • What is Science?

  • What is the relationship between science and religion?

  • How did the Scientific Revolution influence government, society and the arts in different places around the world?

  • How did the effects of the Renaissance lead to contributions made during the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment? 

QUOTATIONs

 

"I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use."  ~Galileo Galilei

 

"The Bible shows the way to go to heaven, not the way the heavens go."  ~Galileo Galilei

 

"I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin not with the Scriptures, but with experiments, and demonstrations."  ~Galileo Galilei

 

"Why then do we hesitate to grant [the Earth] the motion which accords naturally with its form, rather than attribute a movement to the entire universe whose limit we do not and cannot know? And why should we not admit, with regard to the daily rotation, that the appearance belongs to the heavens, but the reality is in the Earth?"

~Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies (1543)

 

 

VOCABULARY:

  • heliocentric

  • scientific method

  • hypothesis

  • gravity

  • natural law

  • social contract

  • laissez faire

  • free market

  • economy

  • censorship

  • propaganda

 

 

ONLINE LESSONS

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND:

 

  • Identify advances in science and the scienctists that challenged the old view of the world.

  • Understand that scientific discoveries and the belief that ideas could be tested and confirmed led to new ways of thinking about society.

  • Describe the ideas of the Enlightenment and how they influenced society, government, economics, and the arts.

  • The creative thinking of the Renaissance led to the Age of Reason. 

KEY LINKS ON ENLIGHTENMENT AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

 

The Scientific Revolution...

Done By:  Lisa Ayyad, Mohamed El-Shorafa, Shady Salama

7.59 Describe the roots of the Scientific Revolution based upon Christian and Muslim influences.
 

 

In this lesson we explore the Scientific Revolution and the controversy which surrounds the very term. Additionally, we learn about just a few of the most important thinkers of the period who laid the foundation for our modern understanding of the world.

 

In this lesson, we explore the philosophical, religious, and cultural effects of the Scientific Revolution on Early Modern society - effects that forever changed the Western view of the universe and humanity's place within it.

Science and Islam - The Power of Doubt, Part 3...

Physicist Jim Al-Khalili tells the story of the great leap in scientific knowledge that took place in the Islamic world between the 8th and 14th centuries.

Al-Khalili turns detective, hunting for clues that show how the scientific revolution that took place in the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe had its roots in the earlier world of medieval Islam. He travels across Iran, Syria and Egypt to discover the huge astronomical advances made by Islamic scholars through their obsession with accurate measurement and coherent and rigorous mathematics.

He then visits Italy to see how those Islamic ideas permeated into the West and ultimately helped shape the works of the great European astronomer Copernicus, and investigates why science in the Islamic world appeared to go into decline after the 16th and 17th centuries, only for it to re-emerge in the present day.

Al-Khalili ends his journey in the Royan Institute in the Iranian capital Tehran, looking at how science is now regarded in the Islamic world.

The Enlightenment, Part 1...
The Enlightenment, Part 2...
7.61 Trace how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements and epochs as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Greeks, the Romans, and Christianity.
 
  • Scientific Revolution convinced many European thinkers about power of reason

  • Scientific method and reason led to discoveries about physical world

  • Wondered if reason could be used to study human nature, society

  • New generation of philosophers, 1600s

  • Viewed reason as best way to understand truth

  • Concluded reason could be used to solve all human problems

  • This time of optimism now called the Enlightenment 

 

 

 

7.63 Explain the origins of modern capitalism, the influence of mercantilism, and the cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in 17th century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns; including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and mapmakers.
 

 

Capitalism and Socialism:  Crash Course..
Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: excerpts from Two Treatises of Government, John Locke; excerpts from The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu
7.60 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources explaining the significance of new scientific theories, the accomplishments of leading figures including Sir Frances Bacon, Nicolaus Copernicus, Rene Descartes, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, and Sir Isaac Newton, and new inventions, including the telescope, microscope, thermometer, and barometer.

 

Galileo's Battle for the "Heavens"...

At a time when heretics were burned alive for dissent, scientist Galileo Galilei risked his life to advance his revolutionary concepts of the Universe.

 

Newton's Dark Secrets...

English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

 

Six Word Memoirs for Enlightenment Thinkers...

Trying to delve into the mindset of Enlightenment thinkers, students in the HTHS freshman humanities class make six word memoirs from the point of view of famous philosophes and scientists of that time.

Song: The Scientist by Coldplay
Six Word Memoirs Made With and Inspired By: National Writing Project Digitalis 

7.62 Describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke and Charles-Louis Montesquieu.

READINGS

THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

The 18th Century proudly referred to itself as the "Age of Enlightenment" and rightfully so, for  Europe had dwelled in the dim glow of the Middle Ages when suddenly the lights began to come on in men's minds and humankind moved forward.

ACTIVITIES

INVENTORS AND INVENTIONS

 

Search for inventors and inventions by name, historical era, country, or field. Under A you will find everything from adhesive tape to Archimedes with a working level demonstrated. Each entry is a brief encyclopedic description, many enhanced by pictures.

 

 

VIRTUAL FIELDTRIPS

MUSEO GALILEO VIRTUAL MUSEUM

 

A multimedia reconstruction of the context and issues of reference of objects associaled with Galileo and his times.

HumorousMoment

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES EARL OF SANDWICH

A piano playing caveman sets the record straight about the invention of the sandwich.

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES THE ROYAL SOCIETY

An amusing account of Sir Isaac Newton's problem with publishing his most important work...

Sir Isaac Newton: "What's This Force?" | SUNG HISTORY

The father of physics Isaac Newton asks the big questions: why oh why?

DATABASES

TEL

 

Free Access to great resources for Tennesseans

 

DISCOVERY ATLAS INTERACTIVE MAP

Select a location and experience the culture, government, history and natural of countries around the world.   

 

A MOMENT IN TIME

 

Take a journey around the world today to see "a moment in time"...

 

HISTORY PRIMARY SOURCE READER

 

Excerpts from many of the primary sources highlighted in the Common Core Curriculum.

 

 

FOOD TIMELINE

Food history presents a fascinating buffet of popular lore and contradictory facts.

 

INTERNET ANCIENT HISTORY SOURCEBOOK

 

The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook has expanded greatly since its creation, and now contains hundred of local files as well as links to source texts throughout the net.  

 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

 

WORLD ATLAS

 

Comprehensive facts about regions around the world.

 

WORLDOLOGY

The changing face of Europe over the centuries...

 

BEST HISTORY SITES

 

Comprehensive resources and lesson plans for teaching history.

 

DIGITAL HISTORY

 

Using new technologies to enhance teaching and research.

 

LOC TEACHING WITH PRIMARY SOURCES

 

Use digital historical sources to explore different topics online with fun interactive teacher-created activities. Choose from various activities to get started.

 

SMITHSONIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Online Resources from A to Z

 

 

 

APPS
WHY LEARN HISTORY?

KIDS DISCOVER APPS

 

Print 28 pages of free lesson plans and activities based on the apps on the CMS LMC iPads.

WHY STUDY CLASSICS?

 

Why Study Classics?  Advantages of Classical Studies

EXPLORING ANCIENT WORLD CULTURES

 

Why Study Ancient World Cultures? An Essay by Bill Hemminger

CONTACTS

3635 Georgetown Road, NW,

Cleveland, TN  37312

Tel: 423-479-9641
Fax: 423-456-7890

 

Mail: gdyrek@clevelandschools.org

 

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THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES EXPERIENCE DIGITAL VAULTS

 

Use the assets in these collections to create your own poster or movie.

ONLINE TEXTBOOKS

 

Covering Ancient History

TODAY IN HISTORY

 

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

iCIVICS

 

Free lesson plans and games for learning Civics.

WHY DO CIVILIZATIONS FAIL?

Why do great civilizations fall? The history of humankind has been marked by patterns of growth and decline. Some declines have been gradual, occurring over centuries. Others have been rapid, occurring over the course of a few years. War, drought, natural disaster, disease, overpopulation, economic disruption: any of these or a combination of these events can bring about the collapse of a civilization.

 

COMMON CORE LITERACY IN SOCIAL STUDIES/HISTORY LESSONS

 

Achieve the CORE by using these lessons to incorporate literacy into your teaching.

PBS NEWS HOUR FOR STUDENTS

 

Current Events explored in-depth with lesson plans.

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