Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age:
Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, and social structures of early Africa through the Neolithic Age which led to the development of civilizations.
• Paleolithic Era (2,500,000 - 10,000 BCE) A Hunter-Gatherer Culture
- Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000 - 200,000 BCE)
- Middle Paleolithic (200,000 - 40,000 BCE)
- Upper Paleolithic (40,000 - 10,000 BCE)
• Mesolithic Era (Europe) (c.10,000 - 4,000 BCE) Mostly Hunter-Gatherer, with fishing and the beginnings of farming
• Neolithic Era (Europe) (c.4,000 - 2,000 BCE) A Farming Culture
Did humans shape their environment or did the environment shape the humans?
What does it mean to be civilized?
Why do we have belief systems?
Why are some places better to live than others?
What is justice?
Why do people trade?
Does cultural diffusion promote or destroy culture?
What causes a society to rise or fall?
How was this time period a major turning point in Global History?
Do the arts reflect society or does society influence the arts?
What is meant by the quote, “Civilization is a race between education and catastrophe.” ?
~H. G. Wells English author, historian, & utopian (1866 - 1946).
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND:
The tools/evidence historians use to study the past.
The similarities and differences of the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.
The political, economic, geographic and social changes brought about as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.
The major characteristics of civilization.
The influence of geographic factors on the development of early civilizations.
The achievements of major early civilizations in science and technology, law and justice, and art and architecture.
Origins/basic beliefs/practices of the world’s major religions/ philosophies.
The following are a list of vocabulary words that you will be responsible for learning in order to better understand prehistoric times.
history - written and other recorded events of people
prehistory - time before writing was invented
archaeologist - a scientist who examines objects to learn about the human pastoral
traditions - stories passed down by word of mouth
geography - the study of the Earth's surface and the processes that shape it.
hominid - a modern human or a member of an earlier group that may have included ancestors or relatives of modern humans
The Stone Age - a period of time during which hominids made lasting tools and weapons mainly from stone; the earliest known period of prehistoric culture
nomad - a person who has no settled home
fertile - rich in the substances plants need to grow well; describes soil and land
domesticate - to adapt wild plants or tame wild animals and to breed them for human use
hunter-gatherer - humans who live off the land by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild fruits, nuts and vegetables for food.
irrigation - supplying land with water through a network of canals
surplus - more than is needed
artisan - a worker who is especially skilled at crafting items by hand
civilization - a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
social class - a group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living
KEY LINKS ON EARLY MAN
Evidence of the Origins of Man...
6.1 Identify sites in Africa where archaeologists and historians have found evidence of the origins of modern human beings and describe what the archaeologists found.
Advanced DNA testing combined with recently unearthed discoveries are bolstering the belief that if you look back far enough, all living human beings are the descendents of a small, innovative and ambitious set of people on the African continent. With the mapping of the human genome in 2003, combined with thousands of people around the world submitting their DNA for testing, there's now mounting physical proof we all started in Africa before migrating around the world. Geneticists are able to identify certain genetic sequences or "markers" in each of us and cross-reference it with a number of ever-growing international databases. Where there's a match, there's likely a common ancestor and genetically speaking, all markers point to Africa.
Evidence suggests human beings started in Africa before migrating around the world. Archeological finds in South Africa suggest modern human behavior began in Africa. Advanced DNA testing can help you trace your ancestors
The Paleolithic Age...
6.2 Provide textual evidence that characterizes the nomadic hunter-gatherer societies of the Paleolithic Age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, beads and other jewelry).
Ray Mears teaches how to fashion a bow and arrow with only flint and stone age tools. He also teaches how to make a fire with "Iron Pirite" and "Flint"
Chapter 1. Sample Chapter Pearson...The Birth of Civilization
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution...
Human Prehistory...in 4 Parts...with a conclusion
This award-winning video collaboration from Khan Academy and 23andMe introduces human prehistory starting over 200,000 years ago. Who were our first human ancestors? Where did they live?
Third in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how early humans continued to defy the odds and populated the Americas during the last ice age.
Explore this online learning resource and learn about our early Ice Age ancestors and the landscape they inhabited. Developed with help from the British Museum, this website is aimed at Educators and learners of all ages and abilities.
Final video in a series from 23andMe and Khan Academy that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how when people started crossing oceans, genetic and cultural differences between people from different continents began fading.
Characteristics of Civilizations...
6.6 Identify and explain the importance of the characteristics of civilizations, including: · the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions · an economy that produces food surpluses · a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities · the existence of social classes · developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture · a system of record keeping · technology
Mneumonic device to help you remember the "Eight Characteristics of a Civilization."
the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions
an economy that produces food surpluses
a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities
the existence of social classes
developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture
a system of record keeping
Historical Time Designations...
6.7 Recognize time designations and the abbreviations, including: · B.C. · B.C.E. · A.D. · C.E. · circa (c. or ca), decades, centuries, prehistoric, historic
CE usually stands for "Common Era." AD is an abbreviation for "Anno Domini" in Latin or "the year of the Lord" in English. Both measure the number of years since the approximate birthday of Yeshua of Nazareth (a.k.a. Jesus Christ) a little over two millennia ago. CE and AD have the same value. That is 1 CE = 1 AD, and 2011 CE = 2011 AD. The word "common" simply means that it is based on the most frequently used calendar system: the Gregorian Calendar.
BCE stands for "Before the Common Era." BC means "Before Christ," or "Before the Messiah." Both measure the number of years before the approximate birthday of Yeshua/Jesus. Designation of a year in BC and BCE also have identical values.
B.C. stands for "Before Christ," it is used to date events before the birth of Jesus.
A.D. is the abbreviation for the Latin phrase anno Domini, which means "in the year of our Lord," and is used for dates after Jesus's birth.
Western archaelogists have used this system for many years; however, since not all archaelogists are Christian, the C.E. [Common Era] and B.C.E. [Before the Common Era] are being used.
LEARN ABOUT THE FIELD OF ARCHAEOLOGY
6.3 Explain the importance of the discovery of metallurgy and agriculture.
Second in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe, this video introduces human prehistory, this video describes how our human ancestors spread throughout Africa and then into other regions such as Australia and Europe. How did they reach Australia so early on? What happened when our ancestors encountered Neanderthals?
6.4 Evaluate the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.
Fourth in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how agriculture changed human societies and genetics throughout the world.
Impact of Agriculture...
6.5 Summarize the impact of agriculture related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization.
National Geographic Birth of Civilization: History of man from nomadic hunter-gatherer to the invention of written communication.
John Roachfor National Geographic NewsOctober 30, 2003
An article attesting to man's violence against man, even in the earliest of times by Arther Ferrill
Lesson Overview: Children will learn how archeologists excavate sites by doing their own excavation on a jello mold.
Students will utilize A.D./B.C. & B.C.E./C.E. to create a living time line using dates on cards. They will then research and create individual time lines.
Experience what life may have been like back in the Iron Age.
About 40,000 years ago, the first anatomically modern humans revolutionized their cultures with specialized weaponry and other tools.
An exploration of the revolutionary period of prehistory that began when humans abandoned the nomadic hunting and gathering existence they had known for millennia to take up a completely new way of life the decisive move to farming and herding the ration of permanent settlements and the discovery of metals setting the stage for the arrival of the worlds first civilisation.
Sixth graders, join this archaeological dig in Turkey today at a place called Catalhoyuk. As you look at the ruins of this first city, think about why they buried their dead under the floor, what they ate for dinner 10,000 years ago, and what the small stone balls that were recently discovered may have been used for. Look over the shoulders of the archaeologists as they dig for the answers.
Urbanization and the Evolution of Cities across 10.000 years...
About 10,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers, aided by rudimentary agriculture, moved to semi-permanent villages and never looked back. With further developments came food surpluses, leading to commerce, specialization and, many years later with the Industrial Revolution, the modern city. Vance Kite plots our urban past and how we can expect future cities to adapt to our growing populations. Lesson ideas...
Prehistoric African Cave Art...
A journey to Prehistoric Africa
Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: Digital collections of early African art and tools, including cave paintings and spears
BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES STONE AGE SONG
A piano playing caveman sets the record straight about the Stone Age.
Stone Tools from West Africa
Photo taken at the Institute of African Studies, Fourah Bay College, Freetown, Sierra Leone in 1968. The celts were probably hafted as axes or adzes and used to shape artefacts (mortars for pounding rice, for example) from wood or other soft materials. The "crayons" were probably used for red colouring. These artefacts date to about 2,000 years ago.
Carved Bone Art
Roughly 13,000 years old. This engraved bone is not part of a decrative tool, weapon or jewellery but is a small personal item. It depicts three reindeer and and an ibex slightly set back second from the left. Carved bones from the GLAM event at the British Museum's Ice Age exhibit. Photo by: Discott
Prehistoric Pottery Shards
Prehistoric pottery sherds from archaeological excavations at Kamabai Rock Shelter, Sierra Leone (West Africa) The piece on the lower left is part of a ceramic pipe --- the part that fits onto the stem. The bowl would have been where the visible hole is now.by jorge lucus.
Prehistoric stone artifacts from Sierra Leone, West Africa. Photo taken in 1968 in the Sierra Leone Museum, Freetown. Scale in centimetres.
Eland cave, Drakensberg, South Africa, Photographer: Fondazione Passaré
Eland cave, Drakensberg, South Africa, Photographer: Fondazione Passaré
Cave painting created by the San people in the Cederberg Cave near Stadsaal, South Africa.
Main Caves, Giants Castle, Drakensberg, South Africa, Photographer: Fondazione Passaré
Cave paintings of the Rock of Circumcision. Photographer: Fondazione Passaré