Human Origins in Africa through the Neolithic Age:

 

Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, and social structures of early Africa through the Neolithic Age which led to the development of civilizations.

 

• Paleolithic Era (2,500,000 - 10,000 BCE) A Hunter-Gatherer Culture

          - Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000 - 200,000 BCE)

          - Middle Paleolithic (200,000 - 40,000 BCE)

          - Upper Paleolithic (40,000 - 10,000 BCE)

• Mesolithic Era (Europe) (c.10,000 - 4,000 BCE) Mostly Hunter-Gatherer, with fishing and the beginnings of farming

• Neolithic Era (Europe) (c.4,000 - 2,000 BCE) A Farming Culture

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

REFLECTION

 

  • Did humans shape their environment or did the environment shape the humans?

  • What does it mean to be civilized?

  • Why do we have belief systems?

  • Why are some places better to live than others?

  • What is justice?

  • Why do people trade?

  • Does cultural diffusion promote or destroy culture?

  • What causes a society to rise or fall?

  • How was this time period a major turning point in Global History?

  • Do the arts reflect society or does society influence the arts?

QUOTATION

 

What is meant by the quote, “Civilization is a race between education and catastrophe.” ?

~H. G. Wells English author, historian, & utopian (1866 - 1946).

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND:

 

  • The tools/evidence historians use to study the past.

  • The similarities and differences of the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods.

  • The political, economic, geographic and social changes brought about as a result of the Neolithic Revolution.

  • The major characteristics of civilization.

  • The influence of geographic factors on the development of early civilizations.

  • The achievements of major early civilizations in science and technology, law and justice, and art and architecture.

  • Origins/basic beliefs/practices of the world’s major religions/ philosophies.

VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY:

Prehistory

The following are a list of vocabulary words that you will be responsible for learning in order to better understand prehistoric times.

  • history - written and other recorded events of people

  • prehistory - time before writing was invented

  • archaeologist - a scientist who examines objects to learn about the human pastoral

  • traditions - stories passed down by word of mouth

  • geography - the study of the Earth's surface and the processes that shape it.

  • hominid - a modern human or a member of an earlier group that may have included ancestors or relatives of modern humans

  • The Stone Age - a period of time during which hominids made lasting tools and weapons mainly from stone; the earliest known period of prehistoric culture

  • nomad - a person who has no settled home

  • fertile - rich in the substances plants need to grow well; describes soil and land

  • domesticate - to adapt wild plants or tame wild animals and to breed them for human use

  • hunter-gatherer - humans who live off the land by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild fruits, nuts and vegetables for food.

  • irrigation - supplying land with water through a network of canals

  • surplus - more than is needed

  • artisan - a worker who is especially skilled at crafting items by hand

  • civilization - a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes

  • social class - a group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living

 

 

ONLINE LESSONS

 

 

Evidence of the Origins of Man...

6.1 Identify sites in Africa where archaeologists and historians have found evidence of the origins of modern human beings and describe what the archaeologists found.

 

Advanced DNA testing combined with recently unearthed discoveries are bolstering the belief that if you look back far enough, all living human beings are the descendents of a small, innovative and ambitious set of people on the African continent.  With the mapping of the human genome in 2003, combined with thousands of people around the world submitting their DNA for testing, there's now mounting physical proof we all started in Africa before migrating around the world.  Geneticists are able to identify certain genetic sequences or "markers" in each of us and cross-reference it with a number of ever-growing international databases. Where there's a match, there's likely a common ancestor and genetically speaking, all markers point to Africa.

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

Evidence suggests human beings started in Africa before migrating around the world. Archeological finds in South Africa suggest modern human behavior began in Africa. Advanced DNA testing can help you trace your ancestors

 

INTERACTIVE SITES

The Paleolithic Age...

6.2 Provide textual evidence that characterizes the nomadic hunter-gatherer societies of the Paleolithic Age (their use of tools and fire, basic hunting weapons, beads and other jewelry).

 

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

Ray Mears teaches how to fashion a bow and arrow with only flint and stone age tools. He also teaches how to make a fire with "Iron Pirite" and "Flint"

Chapter 1. Sample Chapter Pearson...The Birth of Civilization

 

RESEARCH LINKS

 

INTERACTIVE SITES

Neolithic Agricultural Revolution...

Human Prehistory...in 4 Parts...with a conclusion

BEGIN HERE:

This award-winning video collaboration from Khan Academy and 23andMe introduces human prehistory starting over 200,000 years ago. Who were our first human ancestors? Where did they live?

NUMBER THREE:

Third in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how early humans continued to defy the odds and populated the Americas during the last ice age.

 

Explore this online learning resource and learn about our early Ice Age ancestors and the landscape they inhabited. Developed with help from the British Museum, this website is aimed at Educators and learners of all ages and abilities.

END HERE:
Final video in a series from 23andMe and Khan Academy that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how when people started crossing oceans, genetic and cultural differences between people from different continents began fading.

Characteristics of Civilizations...

6.6 Identify and explain the importance of the characteristics of civilizations, including: · the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions · an economy that produces food surpluses · a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities · the existence of social classes · developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture · a system of record keeping · technology

 

Mneumonic device to help you remember the "Eight Characteristics of a Civilization."

  • the presence of geographic boundaries and political institutions

  • an economy that produces food surpluses

  • a concentration of population in distinct areas or cities

  • the existence of social classes

  • developed systems of religion, learning, art, and architecture

  • a system of record keeping

  • technology

 

 

RESEARCH LINKS

 

Historical Time Designations...

6.7 Recognize time designations and the abbreviations, including: · B.C. · B.C.E. · A.D. · C.E. · circa (c. or ca), decades, centuries, prehistoric, historic

 

C.E.

CE usually stands for "Common Era." AD is an abbreviation for "Anno Domini" in Latin or "the year of the Lord" in English. Both measure the number of years since the approximate birthday of Yeshua of Nazareth (a.k.a. Jesus Christ) a little over two millennia ago. CE and AD have the same value. That is 1 CE = 1 AD, and 2011 CE = 2011 AD. The word "common" simply means that it is based on the most frequently used calendar system: the Gregorian Calendar.

 

B.C.E.

BCE stands for "Before the Common Era." BC means "Before Christ," or "Before the Messiah." Both measure the number of years before the approximate birthday of Yeshua/Jesus. Designation of a year in BC and BCE also have identical values.

 

B.C.,

B.C. stands for "Before Christ," it is used to date events before the birth of Jesus.

 

A.D.

A.D. is the abbreviation for the Latin phrase anno Domini, which means "in the year of our Lord," and is used for dates after Jesus's birth.

 

Western archaelogists have used this system for many years; however, since not all archaelogists are Christian, the C.E. [Common Era] and B.C.E. [Before the Common Era] are being used.

 

 

THE RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION GUIDE  

PALEOLITHIC -NEOLITHIC ERA 

 

LEARN ABOUT THE FIELD OF ARCHAEOLOGY

 

6.3 Explain the importance of the discovery of metallurgy and agriculture.

 

NUMBER TWO:  

Second in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe, this video introduces human prehistory, this video describes how our human ancestors spread throughout Africa and then into other regions such as Australia and Europe. How did they reach Australia so early on? What happened when our ancestors encountered Neanderthals?

 

6.4 Evaluate the climatic changes and human modifications of the physical environment that gave rise to the domestication of plants and animals and new sources of clothing and shelter.

 

NUMBER FOUR:

Fourth in a series of videos from Khan Academy and 23andMe that introduces human prehistory, this video describes how agriculture changed human societies and genetics throughout the world.

 

Impact of Agriculture...

6.5 Summarize the impact of agriculture related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization.

 

National Geographic Birth of Civilization:  History of man from nomadic hunter-gatherer to the invention of written communication.

 

 

  

READINGS

DECIPHERING THE ORIGIN, TRAVELS OF "ICEMAN"

 

John Roachfor National Geographic NewsOctober 30, 2003

NEOLITHIC WARFARE

 

An article attesting to man's violence against man, even in the earliest of times by Arther Ferrill

ACTIVITIES

JELLO MOLD EXCAVATIONS

 

Lesson Overview: Children will learn how archeologists excavate sites by doing their own excavation on a jello mold.

 

B.C. or A.D.? THAT IS THE QUESTION

Students will utilize A.D./B.C. & B.C.E./C.E. to create a living time line using dates on cards. They will then research and create individual time lines.

LIFE IN THE IRON AGE

 

Experience what life may have been like back in the Iron Age.

VIRTUAL FIELDTRIPS

STONE AGE TOOLS

 

About 40,000 years ago, the first anatomically modern humans revolutionized their cultures with specialized weaponry and other tools.

STORIES FROM THE STONE AGE 1-15 CLIPS

 

An exploration of the revolutionary period of prehistory that began when humans abandoned the nomadic hunting and gathering existence they had known for millennia to take up a completely new way of life the decisive move to farming and herding the ration of permanent settlements and the discovery of metals setting the stage for the arrival of the worlds first civilisation.

MYSTERIES OF CATALHOYUK

 

Sixth graders, join this archaeological dig in Turkey today at a place called Catalhoyuk. As you look at the ruins of this first city, think about why they buried their dead under the floor, what they ate for dinner 10,000 years ago, and what the small stone balls that were recently discovered may have been used for. Look over the shoulders of the archaeologists as they dig for the answers.

READ MORE

Urbanization and the Evolution of Cities across 10.000 years...

About 10,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers, aided by rudimentary agriculture, moved to semi-permanent villages and never looked back. With further developments came food surpluses, leading to commerce, specialization and, many years later with the Industrial Revolution, the modern city. Vance Kite plots our urban past and how we can expect future cities to adapt to our growing populations.  Lesson ideas...

Prehistoric African Cave Art...

A journey to Prehistoric Africa

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: Digital collections of early African art and tools, including cave paintings and spears
HumorousMoment

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES STONE AGE SONG

A piano playing caveman sets the record straight about the Stone Age.

DATABASES

TEL

 

Free Access to great resources for Tennesseans

 

DISCOVERY ATLAS INTERACTIVE MAP

Select a location and experience the culture, government, history and natural of countries around the world.   

 

A MOMENT IN TIME

 

Take a journey around the world today to see "a moment in time"...

 

HISTORY PRIMARY SOURCE READER

 

Excerpts from many of the primary sources highlighted in the Common Core Curriculum.

 

 

FOOD TIMELINE

Food history presents a fascinating buffet of popular lore and contradictory facts.

 

INTERNET ANCIENT HISTORY SOURCEBOOK

 

The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook has expanded greatly since its creation, and now contains hundred of local files as well as links to source texts throughout the net.  

 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

 

WORLD ATLAS

 

Comprehensive facts about regions around the world.

 

WORLDOLOGY

The changing face of Europe over the centuries...

 

BEST HISTORY SITES

 

Comprehensive resources and lesson plans for teaching history.

 

DIGITAL HISTORY

 

Using new technologies to enhance teaching and research.

 

LOC TEACHING WITH PRIMARY SOURCES

 

Use digital historical sources to explore different topics online with fun interactive teacher-created activities. Choose from various activities to get started.

 

SMITHSONIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Online Resources from A to Z

 

 

 

APPS
WHY LEARN HISTORY?

KIDS DISCOVER APPS

 

Print 28 pages of free lesson plans and activities based on the apps on the CMS LMC iPads.

WHY STUDY CLASSICS?

 

Why Study Classics?  Advantages of Classical Studies

EXPLORING ANCIENT WORLD CULTURES

 

Why Study Ancient World Cultures? An Essay by Bill Hemminger

CONTACTS

3635 Georgetown Road, NW,

Cleveland, TN  37312

Tel: 423-479-9641
Fax: 423-456-7890

 

Mail: gdyrek@clevelandschools.org

 

  • w-facebook
  • Twitter Clean
  • w-googleplus

THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES EXPERIENCE DIGITAL VAULTS

 

Use the assets in these collections to create your own poster or movie.

ONLINE TEXTBOOKS

 

Covering Ancient History

TODAY IN HISTORY

 

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

iCIVICS

 

Free lesson plans and games for learning Civics.

WHY DO CIVILIZATIONS FAIL?

Why do great civilizations fall? The history of humankind has been marked by patterns of growth and decline. Some declines have been gradual, occurring over centuries. Others have been rapid, occurring over the course of a few years. War, drought, natural disaster, disease, overpopulation, economic disruption: any of these or a combination of these events can bring about the collapse of a civilization.

 

COMMON CORE LITERACY IN SOCIAL STUDIES/HISTORY LESSONS

 

Achieve the CORE by using these lessons to incorporate literacy into your teaching.

PBS NEWS HOUR FOR STUDENTS

 

Current Events explored in-depth with lesson plans.

© 2014-2019 BY G.M. Dyrek CMS LMC

Ancient Map of Africa

1584 map by Ortelius, Abraham,1527-1598. “Africae tabula noua.” Copperplate map, with added color, 37 x 49 cm. From Ortelius’s Theatrum orbis terrarum (Antwerp, 1584). [Historic Maps Collection]