Westward Expansion after the Civil War (1865-1890)

 

Students analyze the social, political, and economic transformation of America as a result of westward expansion.

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

REFLECTION

 

  • Has the West been romanticized?

  • Can the “white man’s conquest” of Native Americans be justified?

  • Have Native Americans been treated fairly by the United States government?

  • Why did people migrate West?

  • How did the idea of Manifest Destiny influence the settlement of the West?

  • What was the effect of our westward expansion on the indigenous populations?

  • How did groups of Americans work together to ensure survival during westward expansion?  

QUOTATION

 

"Go West, young man, and grow up with the country." ~Horace Greeley, 1811-1872

 

 

"The only good Indian is a dead Indian."

~Philip Henry Sheridan 1831 - 1888

January 1869 - At Fort Cobb 

ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND:

 

  • Students will understand the demographic, economic, and political forces that led to continental expansion and the consequences of that expansion. 

  • Students will understand how the innovations and inventions in industry, technology, and transportation impacted life in the United States. 

  • Americans felt that it was their God-given right to settle western land

  • Americans began to settle in the Mexican borderlands, leading to conflict with the Mexican government, the Mexican-American War, and ultimately the acquisition of new land which allowed the United States to stretch from coast to coast

KEY LINKS ON THE WESTWARD EXPANSION

 

An eight-part documentary series which premiered on PBS stations in September 1996. This multimedia guided tour proceeds chapter-by-chapter through each episode in the series, offering selected documentary materials, archival images and commentary, as well as links to background information and other resources of the web site.

Westward Expansion:  Crash course...

In which John Green teaches you about the Wild, Wild, West, which as it turns out, wasn't as wild as it seemed in the movies. When we think of the western expansion of the United States in the 19th century, we're conditioned to imagine the loner.

 

The self-reliant, unattached cowpoke roaming the prairie in search of wandering calves, or the half-addled prospector who has broken from reality thanks to the solitude of his single-minded quest for gold dust. While there may be a grain of truth to these classic Hollywood stereotypes, it isn't a very big grain of truth. Many of the pioneers who settled the west were family groups. Many were immigrants. Many were major corporations. The big losers in the westward migration were Native Americans, who were killed or moved onto reservations. Not cool, American pioneers. 

8.91 Explain patterns of agricultural and industrial development after the Civil War as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets and trade and the location of such development on a map.

 

Crazy Horse Documentary...

Crazy Horse (Lakota: Tȟašúŋke Witkó in Standard Lakota Orthography,[2] IPA:tχaʃʊ̃kɛ witkɔ), literally "His-Horse-Is-Crazy";[3] ca. 1840 -- September 5, 1877) was a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota. He took up arms against the U.S. Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and way of life of the Lakota people, including leading a war party to victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June 1876.

 

Four months after surrendering to U.S. troops under General Crook in May 1877, Crazy Horse was fatally wounded by a military guard, using his bayonet, while allegedly[4][5] resisting imprisonment at Camp Robinson in present-day Nebraska. He ranks among the most notable and iconic of Native American tribal members and has been honored by the U.S. Postal Service with a 13¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.

Told from the perspective of contemporary Lakota people, the film explores the life of Crazy Horse (Tasunke Witko). Viewers see the natural world of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana that Crazy Horse knew. His spiritual nature is discussed, as are his unique qualities as a leader. The final portion of the film examines his role at the Battle of Little Bighorn, his resistance against reservation life, and his violent death at Fort Robinson in 1877. Lakota people share what Crazy Horse means in their world today. The film features original music created for this story. Sharing their insights are Lakota historians Jace DeCory, Donovin Sprague, Wilmer Mesteth and Whitney Recountre.

VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY:

  • transcontinental

    spanning or crossing or on the farther side of a continent

    NOTES:

    connecting the newly settled western states to the industrial, populated east through railroad building

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    The first transcontinental railroad connected Sacramento, California to Omaha, Nebraska.

  • technological

    of or relating to a practical subject that is organized according to scientific principles

    NOTES:

    technological advances in the 19th century could include things like the steel plow, the windmill, or ranching and farming practices never before used in America.

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    The sod house was cool in the summer and warm in the winter despite being a home to small mammals and insects (as well as homesteaders).

  • expansion

    the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope

    NOTES:

    the Railroad Act and the Homestead Act made settlement of the Great Plains and Great Basin more likely

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    Many Americans from crowded Eastern cities and Europeans without land participated in the westward expansion of the United States after the Civil War.

  • relocation

    the act of changing your residence or place of business

    NOTES:

    As white populations grew, conflict with Native Americans led to relocation of the Indians from their traditional homelands

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    The forced relocation of the Nez Perce Indians led Chief Joseph and his followers on a harrowing flight from the United States Cavalry.

  • assimilation

    the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another

    NOTES:

    The problem of Native American resistance to white settlement led many white leaders to require that Indian children be sent to boarding schools to learn non-Indian customs and lifestyles

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    The assimilation of the Native American was aided by the passage of the Dawes Act which broke down tribal relationships.

  • reservation

    the act of keeping back or setting aside for some future occasion

    NOTES:

    the least desirable lands were those that whites could not farm or ranch upon or which were not sites of gold, silver, or other mining ores

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    Sitting Bull resisted the order to go to a reservation prior to participating in the Battle of Little Bighorn.

  • treaty

    a written agreement between two states or sovereigns

    NOTES:

    agreements made with Native Americans to decrease attacks on railroad builders or white settlers which were often broken when promises made to Indians about sacred or traditional lands were not honored

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    At the Treaty of Fort Laramie, the Sioux were promised that the Black Hills would not be settled by white Americans.

  • disease

    an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning

    NOTES:

    smallpox killed large numbers of Native Americans after they had contact with white Americans

    EXAMPLE SENTENCE:

    Disease and warfare were two important factors in the decline of Indian populations in the 19th Century.

 

 

ONLINE LESSONs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Native Americans:  Conflict, Conquest, and Assimilation During the Gilded Age...

8.92 Trace the evolution of federal policies toward American Indians, including movement to reservations; assimilation, boarding schools, wars with Indians (Little Big Horn and Wounded Knee), and the impact of the railroad and settlement patterns of pioneers, Buffalo Soldiers (George Jordan), and the Dawes Act.

 

 

RESEARCH LINKS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impact of Homestead Act...

This video describes the impacts of the Homestead Act of 1862.

Westward Expansion Rap...

8.93 Explain the significance of various American Indian leaders, including:
Bio. Crazy Horse
Bio. Geronimo
Bio. Sitting Bull
Bio. Chief Joseph
 

 

 

8.94 Explain the impact of the Homestead Act.

 

 

Brush your history with a quick overview of the 1862 Homestead Act, one of Abraham Lincoln's crowning legislative achievements.

 

American Indian Rap - Smart Songs

Great Native Indian Chiefs and Native Indians of North America...

Photographs of great Native Indian Chiefs and Native Indians from North America including, Chief Dan George (British Columbia, Canada), Geronimo (United States), Sitting Bull (United States), Crowfoot (Alberta, Canada) Peenamin McKenzie (Sheshashiu, Canada), Rain in the Face (United States), John Grass Pezi, Little Wound, Looking Glass. Labrador Innu paintings by Sheilagh Harvey. Song "Akua Tuta" by Innu band Kashtin.

A History of 19th Century Inventions...

Every one of these common-day items were invented throughout the years of 1814-1915.  Song - The Scientist by Coldplay

8.95 Analyze how significant inventors and their inventions, including barbed wire, the six shooter, windmills, sod housing, and the steel plow changed life in the West.

 

 

Expanding the Transcontinental Railroad:  History and Impact...

8.96 Trace the expansion and development of the Transcontinental Railroad, including the Golden Spike event (1869), and the role that Chinese immigrant laborers (Central Pacific track) and Irish immigrant laborers (Union Pacific track) played in its construction.
 

 

 

READINGS

BUFFALO BILL ENTERTAINS A RUSSIAN GRAND DUKE, 1872 A.D.

 

Buffalo Bill kept a diary of his experience. Read of his account as the Grand Duke's special train pulls into the train station.

SHOOT OUT WITH "WILD BILL" HICKOK, 1869 A.D.

 

The exploits of Wild Bill Hickok - spread by word-of-mouth and embellished by dime novels - would shape the popular image of America's frontier. Tall, lean, muscular, long blond hair falling to his shoulders, two pistols shoved into his belt, wearing a law man's badge on his chest: he personified the image of the Western hero for both his and later generations.

RIDING THE OVERLAND STAGE, 1861 A.D.

 

In 1861, Mark Twain's (real name Samuel Clemens) brother Orion was named Secretary of Nevada Territory. Read of Twain's adventure as he joins his brother for the trip west.

ACTIVITIES

HISTORY MYSTERY NATIVE AMERICAN CULTURE

 

Try your hand at solving this mystery!

THE ANCESTRAL PUEBLO PEOPLE OF NEW MEXICO

 

Experience the history of this Native American Tribe.

IDENTIFY THE TRIBE

See how familiar you are with the major Indian tribes of North America and the regions where they lived.

THE RAILROAD CONNECTION

 

Help solve the mystery of a disappearing railroad town.

VIRTUAL FIELDTRIPS

VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP TO ELLIS ISLAND

 

Explore Ellis Island and meet young Immigrants.

 

HumorousMoment

BBC HORRIBLE HISTORIES Pioneers of Transportation

 

The American Cowboy
8.97 Examine the development and life of the iconic American cowboy, including his skills, clothes and daily life and work.
 
8.98 Explain the concepts of the Open Range, Long Drive and cow towns in the development of the American ranching industry.

 

 

  

Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: A Century of Dishonor, Helen Hunt Jackson.
DATABASES

TEL

 

Free Access to great resources for Tennesseans

 

DISCOVERY ATLAS INTERACTIVE MAP

Select a location and experience the culture, government, history and natural of countries around the world.   

 

A MOMENT IN TIME

 

Take a journey around the world today to see "a moment in time"...

 

HISTORY PRIMARY SOURCE READER

 

Excerpts from many of the primary sources highlighted in the Common Core Curriculum.

 

 

FOOD TIMELINE

Food history presents a fascinating buffet of popular lore and contradictory facts.

 

INTERNET ANCIENT HISTORY SOURCEBOOK

 

The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook has expanded greatly since its creation, and now contains hundred of local files as well as links to source texts throughout the net.  

 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

 

The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

 

WORLD ATLAS

 

Comprehensive facts about regions around the world.

 

WORLDOLOGY

The changing face of Europe over the centuries...

 

BEST HISTORY SITES

 

Comprehensive resources and lesson plans for teaching history.

 

DIGITAL HISTORY

 

Using new technologies to enhance teaching and research.

 

LOC TEACHING WITH PRIMARY SOURCES

 

Use digital historical sources to explore different topics online with fun interactive teacher-created activities. Choose from various activities to get started.

 

SMITHSONIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Online Resources from A to Z

 

 

 

APPS
WHY LEARN HISTORY?

KIDS DISCOVER APPS

 

Print 28 pages of free lesson plans and activities based on the apps on the CMS LMC iPads.

WHY STUDY CLASSICS?

 

Why Study Classics?  Advantages of Classical Studies

EXPLORING ANCIENT WORLD CULTURES

 

Why Study Ancient World Cultures? An Essay by Bill Hemminger

CONTACTS

3635 Georgetown Road, NW,

Cleveland, TN  37312

Tel: 423-479-9641
Fax: 423-456-7890

 

Mail: gdyrek@clevelandschools.org

 

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THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES EXPERIENCE DIGITAL VAULTS

 

Use the assets in these collections to create your own poster or movie.

ONLINE TEXTBOOKS

 

Covering Ancient History

TODAY IN HISTORY

 

A chronological timetable of historical events that occurred on this day in history. Historical facts of the day in the areas of military, politics, science, music, sports, arts, entertainment and more. Discover what happened today in history.

iCIVICS

 

Free lesson plans and games for learning Civics.

WHY DO CIVILIZATIONS FAIL?

Why do great civilizations fall? The history of humankind has been marked by patterns of growth and decline. Some declines have been gradual, occurring over centuries. Others have been rapid, occurring over the course of a few years. War, drought, natural disaster, disease, overpopulation, economic disruption: any of these or a combination of these events can bring about the collapse of a civilization.

 

COMMON CORE LITERACY IN SOCIAL STUDIES/HISTORY LESSONS

 

Achieve the CORE by using these lessons to incorporate literacy into your teaching.

PBS NEWS HOUR FOR STUDENTS

 

Current Events explored in-depth with lesson plans.

© 2014-2019 BY G.M. Dyrek CMS LMC